The government introduced the Minimum Energy Efficiency Standards (MEES) Regulations in 2018 to improve the quality of private rented buildings in England and Wales, to:

  • increase the energy efficiency of the worst performing houses and buildings
  • improve the comfort and conditions in privately rented homes
  • reduce fuel poverty

Currently, privately rented properties must achieve a minimum Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) rating of E. The legislation prevents landlords from renting a property with a rating of F or G. This applies to new and existing tenancies.

The Government has issued MEES guidance for landlords.

The Government has committed to long-term plans for the improvement of energy efficiency in privately rented homes and has recently consulted on improving energy performance in this sector. One proposal is to raise the minimum EPC rating to C for new tenancies from 2025 and all tenancies from 2028.

Read more about the government's plans for Improving the energy performance of privately rented homes.

What is an EPC?

An Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) is needed whenever a property is built, sold, or rented. Before a property is marketed to sell or rent, an EPC for potential buyers and tenants must be provided. An EPC contains:

  • Information about a property’s energy use and typical energy costs
  • Recommendations about how to reduce energy use and save money

An EPC gives a property an energy efficiency rating from A (most efficient) to a G (least efficient) and is valid for 10 years. Landlords can be fined if they don’t get an EPC when they need one.

You can check your EPC rating and find local EPC assessors on the EPC Register.

What are we doing?

We are investigating any potential breaches of the MEES regulations and enforcement action will be considered against landlords that fail to bring their property up to the required standard.

Non-compliance with MEES can attract a financial penalty of up to £5,000. If you believe a property is being rented out that does not meet the regulations, you can let us know.

  Report a property that is not energy efficient

Are some properties exempt from the scheme?

Properties that are legally required to have an EPC, are let on a relevant tenancy type and cannot be improved to meet the minimum E Rating may be exempt from MEES regulations.

Exemptions are defined as:

  • High-cost exemptions
  • 7-year payback exemptions
  • All improvements made exemptions
  • Wall insulation exemptions
  • Consent exemptions
  • Devaluation exemptions
  • New landlord exemptions

Please find out more about exemptions on GOV.UK. 

The landlord must register the exemption here.

Landlord responsibilities

Landlords must ensure that where their rented property is required to have a valid EPC, it meets at least an E rating unless a valid exemption has been registered.

Recommendations for improvements can be found on the EPC and might include:

  • Boiler renewal
  • Installation of radiator thermostats
  • Upgrade and install loft insulation
  • Install cavity wall insulation
  • Install energy-efficient light bulbs

Properties with older EPCs might have already undergone work to meet the standards, but the current EPC may no longer reflect the energy efficiency of the property. Landlords should check their EPCs and consider renewing them if they have undertaken the works already.

Alongside the MEES Regulations, The Housing Act 2004 gives Local Authorities the power to enforce minimum housing standards in the private rented sector using the Housing Health and Safety Rating System (HHSRS) see HHSRS for Landlords and Property Related Professionals.

The EPC rating of a property cannot be considered in isolation. Even if a property meets an EPC E rating, landlords must provide adequate heating and thermal comfort. Local Authorities can issue penalties of up to £30,000 when hazards such as excess cold are identified in a property.

Listed Buildings and Conservation

Historic Buildings, Listed Buildings or buildings within a conservation area are exempt if:

"compliance with the minimum energy requirements would unacceptably alter their character or appearance".

This is not a blanket exemption. If a building is protected, it may still be possible to make improvements. This is only possible where the character or appearance is not altered.

Unacceptable alterations in most protected buildings would be:

  • Double Glazing
  • New doors and windows
  • External wall insulation
  • External boiler flues

However, there are many more low-impact measures that may be acceptable. The onus is on the owner to understand which works may, or may not, be permitted on their property.

When applying for an exemption, owners will need to evidence that:

  • All recommended measures on their EPC would unacceptably alter the character or appearance of the building. 
  • None of the recommended measures could have been carried out to improve the energy efficiency of the building.

Owners of such properties should seek advice from the Planning Department and apply for planning permission where necessary.

Please visit Historic England for further information.

What help is available?

Simple Energy Advice and Energy Saving Trust also provide helpful advice and guidance on improving properties' energy efficiency.

The Government has launched a new interactive online service which provides a home energy MOT and recommendations for energy efficiency improvements: Find ways to save energy in your home.